Start | Introduction | Part One: Islands | Part Two: Do or Die | Part Three: Send in the Clones
In parts one and two of this paper I attempted to convince you of the necessity of colonizing space. I hope I was successful. In this section I will discuss how we might go about colonizing planets outside our own solar system by shedding some light on a few of the technologies that may help get us there.
This section will make several assumptions:
1) That humankind does not destroy itself in the near future. It's a stretch, but let's run with it.
2) That we will eventually terraform and colonize Mars. If we
can't terraform Mars, then heading out to "terrarize" another
solar system seems out of the question.
3) That a propulsion system is designed capable of taking a ship of
reasonable size to one of the nearer sun-like stars--
preferably one that we have found to have a planet of earth size orbiting at approximately 1 A.U.--in a reasonable
amount of time. (Actually, using my plan, it need not be in a reasonable amount of time--but still it would be nice. A ship
that can travel at 0.1c will be more than satisfactory.)
4) That scientists will have improved the techniques for finding planets
around other stars--at this point all we're finding are
the big Jupiter-like planets that have the most gravitational effect on their suns.
5) That people will come to their senses, recognize the enormous benefits of cloning, and legalize it.
6) And probably a few other assumptions....
The reason I am writing this paper is because I see so many documentaries and books on space travel, and none of them have ever even touched on one of the key technologies that will take humankind to another solar system: cloning. Some of the books and documentaries have very good ideas, some fantastic, some far-fetched, and some downright farcical. I intend to steer the thoughts of those studying these issues to methods that might actually stand a chance of landing humans on a planet not circling our own sun. Sort of.... Let me explain.
| The basic idea behind my plan is this: We will not send
living humans. We will send DNA (genetic material), which will then
be cloned upon arrival. Ah, now I hear you all screaming,
"What! Humans themselves will not travel the galaxy?" No. In
the short term we will not. It is far too inefficient, for many reasons.
A ship would need to be designed to sustain life for very long periods
of time--safely. That won't happen for quite awhile. Trying to
take living humans (and other animals) to other star systems will hold us
back for centuries, if not millennia, from actually doing so. Building
generational ships or placing humans in "suspended animation" will still
be a fantasy long after my plan for colonizing the galaxy is a reality.
How many people do you know that would willingly board such a generational
ship, knowing that they would never again see their home planet, Earth?
Not many. I myself would love to go to the Moon--or even Mars--but
I shudder at the thought of leaving our solar system.
But once we have an interstellar community of 20-30 worlds, each with perhaps 5-10 billion people on it, we may have the resources as well as the knowledge to permit interstellar travel by living humans. 200 billion minds are better than six billion. Someone on one of these worlds may come up with a better solution for the problems of human interstellar travel.
The idea of sending clones sidesteps many of the problems of getting life to another planet. DNA doesn't require living space, food, and all of the other amenities that humans do. This will enable us to make the ship much smaller, which allows us to use less fuel, which allows us to make the ship smaller still (assuming that the ship carries onboard fuel). (Incidentally, scientists in Honolulu have recently cloned mice using ordinary cells rather than eggs taken from the reproductive system of donor animals. Eggs are the largest cell in the human body. By using ordinary cells rather than eggs, we will shave quite a few more tons off the weight of our "seed ship". [See "Three ways to clone a mammal" at http://www.humancloning.org/threeways.htm]) This is an important point. Our seed ship will be rather large as it is, and every ounce we shave off its weight is one less ounce we will have to accelerate.
Once humans get to another planet, they will need a viable breeding population (any viable population requires genetic diversity--lots of different individuals--in order to avoid crossbreeding). Taking enough living humans aboard a ship to do this means building a REALLY large ship. But single cells (just what is needed for cloning) are tiny. We can send millions of potential humans in the form of genetic material and have many times the number of individuals necessary to have a viable population.
Which brings me to another point. We don't just want a couple of human beings on some dead planet. We want a living world, complete with lions and tigers and bears, and yes, even whales (and algae, bacteria, etc.). Try building a generational ship for whales--now that would be an engineering feat. By using cloning techniques, we will be able to send millions of whales to another planet--the entire genetic diversity of whalekind will be represented. And not just whales. We will take samples of every living creature and plant on Earth--except mosquitoes and miniature schnauzers. (Of course, trout and other animals need mosquitos for food so I suppose we will have to take them, but there's no reason we can't genetically engineer them to hate human blood. The schnauzers will be left behind for sure, though.) And all will be taken in one ship that requires very little (comparably) to keep them "alive".
Will the genetic material survive the trip? I believe so. The ship will have to be well-shielded to protect its valuable cargo from cosmic rays and other highly energetic radiation. And the genetic material will have to be viable for at least centuries and quite possibly millennia. This would seem rather difficult at first glance. But DNA seems to be a survivor--even on its own, without our help. There are actually scientists who believe that it may be possible to clone dinosaurs from DNA found inside insects stuck in 70 million year old amber, just like in Jurassic Park. It's not that far-fetched. Consider this: Russian scientists insist that they will clone the next frozen mammoth that they find in Siberia. That mammoth is 10,000 years old or more, and was preserved accidentally by mother nature. If mother nature can preserve DNA accidentally for 10,000 years, surely we can use our technology to preserve it for a mere few thousand years. And it shouldn't be too hard to keep it cold since space has a background temperature of just 3 Kelvin. (Personally, I can't wait to have living mammoths on Earth again. Perhaps we can take a few along to New Earth as well.)
When the ship arrives at the planet, contrary to first instincts, humans will not be the first thing cloned. Indeed, it may very well be a thousand years before the first humans are cloned. Our seed ship, which I affectionately call "NASA's Ark," will first set about the business of creating a livable world. This will happen in about the same order as the introduction of species to our own planet. First bacteria and oxygen producing algae, then lifeforms further up the evolutionary ladder, and eventually human beings.
Today when we clone an animal, we put the fertilized cells into a living being, where it grows and matures. When our seed ship arrives at New Earth, it won't contain any "living" humans or anything else. So how will we go about cloning? We will need to design artificial wombs. The clones will be "test tube babies," from conception to birth. Today, we give clones a "jump start" in a nutrient solution. We will simply extend this until birth. These "test tubes" could be designed to resemble a womb, if that is deemed desirable. But perhaps the best way to create a living environment for our fetus-clones most similar to the natural environment of the womb is to clone the female reproductive system. Today we are working on cloning livers, hearts, and most other essential body organs. Why not wombs?
Some might wonder about the moral implications of sending clones to another planet. In fact, these days, many consider any cloning to be immoral or unethical, period. These views are unfounded and based largely on misinformation. Some people believe that armies of clones would be produced and used as slaves. Why would this be? Clones are not somehow lesser beings than those of us who were produced in the traditional way. They are in all respects human (or sheep, or whatever), and would have the same rights as any other human. In the words of Stephen Hawking, "The fuss about cloning is rather silly, I can't see any essential distinction between cloning and producing brothers and sisters in the time-honored way." (See "Prominent people who support human cloning" at http://www.humancloning.org/prominen.htm) And why shouldn't Stephen Hawking feel this way... After all, if genetic engineering had been around in his time, he may not have had to put up with 35 years of intense suffering.
The first humans cloned there would, admittedly, be raised in less than ideal circumstances--by robotic parents, presumably. And people have all kinds of moral dilemmas with clones and genetic engineering as it is, here on Earth. (A recent internet poll suggests that 47% are for human cloning, 53% against, believe it or not.) But I would ask, "What are the moral implications of allowing not only humanity, but, as far as we know, all life in the universe to be extinguished?" It is unthinkable. We must conquer the galaxy and eventually the universe. It is our duty. And the easiest way to do this by far is by sending genetic material and cloning it when the ship gets there.
Another benefit of using clones is that they will be genetically engineered to survive on an initially less than ideal world. We will be terraforming the planet to make it more suitable for life, but at the same time, we will be enhancing life to make it more resilient to and tolerant of the conditions that currently prevail on New Earth. In other words, we'll compromise and meet the planet halfway. This in itself should shave hundreds of years off the time required to terraform a planet.
Getting humans to another solar system is a project fraught
with problems. Initially, there will be no living world to land on
once we get there. I doubt any astronauts would relish the idea of
traveling for 50, 100, or 1000 years or more through empty space only to
circle the planet for another thousand years or more waiting for it to be
terraformed. We want a living planet waiting for us when we get there.
By using clones, we can send one ship that will first terraform the
planet and then populate it, and when the time is right, introduce humans
to it. Some might wonder why we need to send just one ship. Can't we
send a terraforming ship and then follow it up with ships filled with life
a few hundred years later? The problem is that we can never know what
the political climate will be like on Earth that far in the future. We
want to send a ship that, by itself, will accomplish the task.
Twenty or thirty light years is a long way to send for supplies, and
a lot can happen on Earth in 200-2000 years. We need to be confident
that our seed ship will finish the job--regardless of what happens on Earth.
|As amazing and beneficial to space travel as cloning is, it would not be worth much if we couldn't get the genetic material to New Earth. Nor would the clones be useful if we couldn't terraform the world, get it ready for habitation. Enter molecular nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is the science of building machines and materials at the atomic level, atom by atom. The possibilities of this hotly debated technology are staggering.||
- NASA has not devoted much (or
any) research to the benefits of cloning for interstellar travel (and with
good reason, considering the political and ethical debates now raging concerning
cloning--they don't want to lose what little funding they get), but they
have devoted a considerable amount of research to nanotechnology. (See
NASA applications of molecular nanotechnology at
Molecular nanotechnology is another key ingredient in interstellar
space travel. Nanotechnology will be instrumental in getting our genetic
material to New Earth (as well as other planets).
Future Space Applications of Molecular Nanotechnology.
Speech given by Thomas L. Mckendree in March, 1996. Click the play button to begin. If you don't see a video player, you need to download and install the free Realplayer G2, or ask your network administrator to do so--so that you can enjoy the full multimedia benefits of the Web.
One aspect of nanotechnology that is crucial is that you can build self-replicating systems. A small army of self-replicating "assemblers" go about creating more assemblers. (Assemblers are like miniature robots--Star Trek calls them "nanites".) Once there are plenty of assemblers, they can go about building bigger robots that can in turn build anything we want, from toasters to t-shirts to computers, all with absolute precision. (See Engines of Creation - K. Eric Drexler at http://www.foresight.org/EOC/ )
||The seed ship will be built by assemblers to molecular accuracy, every atom in its proper place, from material already out in space. But the assemblers' jobs will not end there--in fact, their job has just begun. Once the ship is built, the assemblers will remain onboard. When the ship is damaged by space debris and particles en-route to New Earth--as is inevitable when sending a ship at extremely high speed to "nearby" star systems --the assemblers will survey the damage and rebuild the damaged skin of the ship. Or another technique would be to use "active materials." Al Globus et al. state, "To make active materials, a material might be filled with nano-scale sensors, computers, and actuators so the material can probe its environment, compute a response, and act. Although this document is concerned with relatively simple artificial systems, living tissue may be thought of as an active material. Living tissue is filled with protein machines which gives living tissue properties (adaptability, growth, self-repair, etc.) unimaginable in conventional materials". (Al Globus et al., 1998) Using active materials we can create blocks of matter that can shape-shift. They could be a toaster one minute, and shape themselves into a television the next. That should allow us trim a bit more off the size and mass of the seed ship.|
|Assemblers will keep every component of the ship in atomically perfect condition for the entire journey, and for the thousands of years it will spend terraforming the planet. As soon as the ship arrives, it will set down an army of assemblers on an asteroid. The assemblers will first self-replicate trillions more assemblers and then turn the asteroid into more ships--some for mining, some cloning labs, some for delivering assemblers and lifeforms to the surface of New Earth, etc. The assemblers on the surface of the planet will go about terraforming the planet and building the infrastructure of civilization. By the time the first humans are cloned, the entire planet will be completely developed--fully furnished homes, cars (if such a thing is needed), buildings, greenhouses, schools, and everything that makes a civilization a civilization. The first humans on New Earth will come to life on a self-maintaining planet that was designed to take care of their every need and desire.||
| When all is running smoothly on New Earth, the first
order of business for the new inhabitants will be to--what else?--send out
more seed ships. In this way, our galaxy will be colonized at an
exponentially increasing rate. The entire galaxy will be populated
with humans (and all other life) within a few million years. The nearest
galaxy to our own Milky Way besides the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds
is the Andromeda galaxy, 2.2 million light-years away: Humankind's
next step will truly be a giant leap. But perhaps by then we will have
the knowledge, experience, and resources necessary to traverse even
that great distance.
<~~~ Hubble's deepest-ever view of the universe unveils myriad galaxies back to the beginning of time. Courtesy of NASA.
This is a project that cannot fail. In fact, just the process of designing and carrying out this monumental task will benefit humankind in ways that we cannot even foresee. Even if the project only accomplishes the settlement of the most primitive lifeforms on another planet, we will not have failed. After all, in a few billion years, that primitive life may well have evolved into intelligent life, which will then proceed on its task of colonizing the universe. In fact, how do we know that that's not how we got here in the first place?
So do I really believe all this is going to happen? No. Unfortunately, our society would need to keep going for at least hundreds if not thousands of years for it to really happen. And our Earth wasn't meant to support the six billion people it has now, let alone the billions and billions more that will inhabit it long before all this comes about. Something has got to give. Do the calculations: At our present rate of expansion, humanity will outweigh the universe in less than 6000 years--which clearly cannot happen. Colonization of our galaxy could happen if we played our cards right, but I'm not holding my breath.
Start | Introduction | Part One: Islands | Part Two: Do or Die | Part Three: Send in the Clones
Moas (Order: Dinornithiformes): Extinct. Online. WWW. Available http://www.bagheera.com/CLASROOM/casestud/moas.htm. 8 Nov. 1998
Sagan, Carl. Pale Blue Dot: A Vision of the Human Future in Space. Random House, New York, 1994.
Savage, Marshall T. The Millennial Project: Colonizing the Galaxy in Eight Easy Steps. Little, Brown and Company, New York, NY, 1994.
Spotlight on Island Biogeography (and Fragmentation). Online. WWW. Available http://www.bagheera.com/CLASROOM/spotlite/spisland.htm. 8 Nov. 1998.
The Dodo Bird (Raphus cucullatus): Extinct. Online. WWW. Available http://www.bagheera.com/CLASROOM/casestud/dodobird.htm 8 Nov. 1998.
Zubrin, Robert. The Case for Mars: The Plan to Settle the Red Planet and Why We Must. Simon and Schuster Inc., New York, NY, 1996.
Drexler, K. Eric, Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1992. Available online: http://www.foresight.org/EOC/
Drexler, K. Eric, Engines of Creation - The Coming Era of Nanotechnology, Anchor Books, 1986.
Al Globus, David Bailey, Jie Han, Richard Jaffe, Creon Levit, Ralph Merkle, and Deepak Srivastava, NASA applications of molecular nanotechnology, The Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, volume 51, pp. 145-152, 1998. Also available online at http://science.nas.nasa.gov/Groups/Nanotechnology/publications/1997/applications.
Antimatter Space Propulsion at Penn State University (LEPS)
NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
CSMT Home Page
Engines of Creation - K. Eric Drexler : Table of Contents
Nanotechnology without Genies - A Critique
Human Cloning Foundation's Home Page
Nanotechnology Sites on the WWW
GSReport:Light Speed Slowed
New Scientist Planet Science
New Scientist Planet Science: Light's spooky connections set distance record
Telomerase and human cloning
Three ways to clone a mammal
Legality of human cloning
Prominent people who support human cloning
Conceiving a Clone
GSReport:Grow Human Heart
NAS Computational Molecular Nanotechnology
NASA applications of molecular nanotechnology
Richard Feynman's 1959 Talk on nanotechnology
Start | Introduction | Part One: Islands | Part Two: Do or Die | Part Three: Send in the Clones
For more information
Ph. Avouris, R. E. Walkup, A. R. Rossi, H. C. Akpati, P. Nordlander, P.-C. Shen, G. G. Ablen and J. W. Wyding, "Breaking Individual Chemical Bonds via STM-Induced Exitations," Surface Science, 1 August 1996, V363 N1-3:368-377.
Pulat B. Babadzhanov, "Density of meteoroids and their mass influx on the Earth,"Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 1993, Proceedings of the 160th symposium of the International Astronomical Union, Belgirate, Italy, 14-18 June 1993, A. Milani, M. Di Martino and A. Cellino, editors, pages 45-54.
Charles W.Bauschlicher Jr., Alessandra Ricca and Ralph Merkle, "Chemical storage of data," Nanotechnology, volume 8, number 1, March 1997 pages 1-5.
Charles. W. Bauschlicher and M. Rosi, "Differentiating between hydrogen and fluorine on a diamond surface", submitted to Theor. Chem. Acta.
Charles. W. Bauschlicher and M. Rosi, unpublished.
Forrest Bishop, "The Construction and Utilization of Space Filling Polyhedra for Active Mesostructures," WWW page.
L. A. Bumm, J. J. Arnold, M. T. Cygan, T. D. Dunbar, T. P. Burgin, L. Jones II, D. L. Allara, James M. Tour, P. S. Weiss, "Are Single Molecular Wires Conducting?" Science, volume 271, 22 March 1996, pages 1705-1707.
L. Chico, Vincent H. Crespi, Lorin X. Benedict, Steven G. Louie and Marvin L. Cohen, "Pure Carbon Nanoscale Devices: Nanotube Heterojunctions," Physical Review Letters, volume 76, number 6, 5 February 1996, pp. 971-974.
Christopher F. Chyba, Paul J. Thomas, and Kevin J. Zahnle, "The 1908 Tunguka explosion: atmospheric disruption of a stony asteroid," Nature volume 361, 7 January 1993, pages 40-44.
H. Dai, J. H. Hafner, A. G. Rinzler, D. T. Colbert and R. E. Smalley, "Nanotubes as Nanoprobes in Scanning Probe Microscopy," Nature 384, pages 147-151, (1996).
A. C. Dillon, K. M. Jones, T. A. Bekkedahl, C. H. Kiang, D. S. Bethune, M. J. Heben, "Storage of hydrogen in single-walled carbon nanotubes," Nature, 27 March 1997, volume 386, N6623:377-379.
M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus and P. C. Eklund, Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes, Academic Press (1995).
K. Eric Drexler, Chris Peterson, and Gayle Pergami, Unbounding the Future, William Morrow and Company, Inc., (1991).
K. Eric Drexler, Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1992).
K. Eric Drexler, Journal of the British Interplanetary Society, volume 45, number 10, pages 401-405 (1992).
Robert A. Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, Volume I: Basic Capabilities , Landes Bioscience, Georgetown TX, 1998.
Al Globus, "The Design and Visualization of a Space Biosphere," 10th Biennial Space Studies Institute/Princeton University Conference on Space Manufacturing, Princeton University, May 15-18, 1991.
Al Globus, Charles Bauschlicher, Jie Han, Richard Jaffe, Creon Levit, Deepak Srivastava, "Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology," Nanotechnology, 9, pp. 1-8 (1998).
D. J. Goldhaber-Gordon, M. S. Montemerlo, J. C. Love, G. J. Opiteck, and J. C. Ellenbogen, Proceedings of the IEEE, April 1997, V85 N4:521-540.
J. Storrs Hall, "Utility Fog: The Stuff that Dreams are Made Of," Nanotechnology: Molecular Speculations on Global Abundance, B. C. Crandall, editor, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996; also in "Utility Fog," Extropy, 3rd (Part 1) and 4th quarter (Part 2), 1994. See WWW page Utility Fog: The Stuff that Dreams are Made Of.
Jie Han, Al Globus, Richard Jaffe and Glenn Deardorff, "Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Carbon Nanotube Based Gears," Nanotechnology, volume 8, number 3, 3 September 1997, pages 95-102.
Jie Han, M. P. Anantram, and Richard Jaffe, "Design and Study of Carbon Nanotube Electronic Devices," The Fifth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology, 5-8 November, 1997, Palo Alto, CA.
Jie Han, Al Globus, and Richard Jaffe, "The Molecular Dynamics of Carbon Nanotube Gears in He and Ne Atomspheres," The Fifth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology, 5-8 November, 1997; Palo Alto, CA.
Jack G. Hills and M. Patrick Goda, "The fragmentation of small asteroids in the atmosphere," The Astronomical Journal, March 1993, volume 105, number 3, pages 1114-1144.
Sumio Iijima, "Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon," Nature, 7 November 1991, volume 354, N6348:56-58.
John D. Issacs, Allyn C. Vine, Hugh Bradner and George E. Bachus, "Satellite Elongation into a True 'Sky-Hook'," Science, volume 151, 11 February 1966, pages 682-683.
C. Joachim and J. Gimzewski, "An Electromechanical Amplifier Using a Single Molecule," Chemical Physics Letters, volume 265, pages 353-357, 1997.
Tom McKendree, "Implications of Molecular Nanotechnology: Technical Performance Parameters on Previously Defined Space System Architectures," The Fourth Foresight Conference on Molecular Nanotechnology, Palo Alto, CA. (November 1995).
M. Menon, D. Srivastava and S. Saini, "Carbon Nanotube Junctions as Building Blocks for Nanoscale Electronic Devices," Semiconductor Device Modeling Workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, August (1997).
M. Menon and D. Srivastava, "Carbon Nanotube T-junctions: Nanoscale Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Contact Devices," submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., (1997).
Ralph C. Merkle, "Nanotechnology and Medicine," Advances in Anti-Aging Medicine, Vol. I, edited by Dr. Ronald M. Klatz, Liebert Press, 1996, pages 277-286.
Ralph C. Merkle and K. Eric Drexler, "Helical Logic," Nanotechnology (1996) volume 7 pages 325-339.
Ralph C. Merkle, "How long will it take to develop nanotechnology?" WWW page.
Joseph Michael, UK Patent #94004227.2.
Gordon Moore, "Progress in digital integrated circuits," 1975 International Electron Devices Meeting, page 11. See the figure: approximate component count for complex integrated circuits vs. year of introduction and the following figures from Miniaturization of electronics and its limits, by R. W. Keyes, IBM Journal of Research and Development, Volume 32, Number 1, January 1988.
Jerome Pearson, Acta Astronautica 2 pages 785-799 (1995).
David L. Rabinowitz, "Are Main-Belt Asteroids a Sufficient Source for the Earth-Approaching Asteroids? Part II. Predicted vs. Observed Size Distributions," Icarus 1997 May, V127 N1:33-54.
Steven. S. Smith, Luming M. Niu, David J. Baker, John A. Wendel, Susan E. Kane, and Darrin S. Joy, "Nucleoprotein-based nanoscale assembly," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, March 18 1997, V94 N6:2162-2167.
Deepak Srivastava and Steve T. Barnard, "Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Carbon Nanotubes on a Shared Memory Architecture," SuperComputing 97 (1997).
Deepak Srivastava, Steve T. Barnard, S. Saini and M. Menon, "Carbon Nanotubes: Nanoscale Electromechanical Sensors", 2nd NASA Semiconductor Device Modeling Workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, August 1997.
Deepak Srivastava, "Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Laser Powered Carbon Nanotube Gears," submitted to Nanotechnology.
Deepak Srivastava, "H2 packing in Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes and Ropes by Molecular Dynamics Simulations," unpublished (1997).
R. Taylor and D. R. M. Walton, "The Chemistry of Fullerenes," Nature, volume 363, N6431, 24 June 1993, pages 685-693.
H. T. Thummel and C. W. Bauschlicher, "On the reaction of FNO2 with CH3, t-butyl, and C13H21," J. Phys. Chem., 101, 1188 (1997).
Tihamer Toth-Fejel, "LEGO(TM)s to the Stars: Active MesoStructures, Kinetic Cellular Automata, and Parallel Nanomachines for Space Applications," The Assembler, Volume 4, Number 3, Third Quarter, 1996
James M. Tour, "Conjugated Macromolecules of Precise Length and Constitution. Organic Synthesis for the Construction of Nanoarchitectures," Chemical Review, January-February 1996, volume 96, pages 537-553.
James M. Tour, Masatoshi Kozaki and Jorge M. Seminario, "Molecular Scale Electronics: Synthetic and Computational Approaches To Nanoscale Digital Computing," unpublished 1997.
M. M. J. Treacy, T. W. Ebbesen and J. M. Gibson, "Exceptionally High Young's Modulus Observed for Individual Carbon Nanotubes," Nature 381, 678 (1996).
Bryan Wowk, "Phased Array Optics," Nanotechnology: Molecular Speculations on Global Abundance, B. C. Crandall, editor, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1996.
Ruilan Wu, Jeffry S. Schumm, Darren L. Pearson, and James M. Tour, "Convergent Synthetic Routes to Orthogonally Fused Conjugated Oligomers Directed towards Molecular Scale Electronic Device Applications," Journal of Organic Chemistry, volume 61, number 20, pages 6906-6921.
Boris I. Yacobson, C. J. Brabec and J. Bernholc, "Nanomechanics of Carbon Tubes - Instabilities Beyond Linear Response," Physical Review Letters, 1 April 1996, V76 N14:2511-2514.
Mark Yim, "Locomotion With A Unit-Modular Reconfigurable Robot," Stanford University Technical Report STAN-CS-TR-95-1536.
Start | Introduction | Part One: Islands | Part Two: Do or Die | Part Three: Send in the Clones
© 1999, Site Design by Bill Allyn